<acronym id="ye8uo"></acronym>
<acronym id="ye8uo"><center id="ye8uo"></center></acronym>
<acronym id="ye8uo"></acronym>
搜索 解放軍報

US habitually bend rules in the South China Sea

美國攪局南海已形成慣性

來源:China Military Online責任編輯:Li Jiayao
2021-02-25 17:39

By Ye Qiang

2月以來,美海軍已先后派遣“麥凱恩”號和“羅素”號導彈驅逐艦,兩次在南海開展所謂“航行自由”行動。另外本月9日,“羅斯?!碧柡汀澳崦灼潯碧杻蓚€航母打擊群還在南海開展聯合演練,這也是自2020年7月以來美軍再次進入南海演習。

Since February 2021, the US Navy has dispatched the destroyer John S. McCain and the guided-missile destroyer USS Russell to conduct so-called “freedom of navigation operations”(FONOPs) in the South China Sea twice in succession. In addition, the USS Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Strike Group and the USS Nimitz Carrier Strike Group, also carried out joint drills in the disputed waters of the South China Sea on February 9, marking the second time the US military had operated in this area since July 2020.

至少從這些行動看,美政府換屆還沒對南海博弈帶來根本性改變。學界普遍認為,拜登政府在南海問題上對中國極限施壓的重心,將從軍事和外交打壓轉向規則和法理的遏制。

It can be deduced from these actions at least that the Biden administration newly taking office has not brought a fundamental change to the game in the South China Sea. There is a general belief in the academic circle that the focus of the Biden administration’s “maximum pressure” policy on China over the South China Sea will shift from suppression by military and diplomacy to containment by rules and legal principles.

在此政策驅動下,美國將打著“基于規則的秩序”這一旗號,在法理方面給予南海其他聲索方更多支持,推動與盟友和伙伴開展聯合行動;利用和制造更多國際法問題、包括所謂“南海仲裁案”裁決結果挑戰中國南海權益的法理基礎,并對“南海行為準則”磋商施加影響;美軍在南海及周邊的軍事活動和存在也將延續增強態勢,繼續通過規律性“航行自由”行動對國際法的解釋和適用進行干預。

Driven by this policy, the US, under the banner of “rules-based international order”, is sure to offer more legal support to the other claimants to the South China Sea except China, to promote joint operations with its allies and partners. It will use and create more international law issues, including the so-called “South China Sea Arbitration”, to challenge the legal basis of China’s rights and interests in the South China Sea and exert influence on the negotiation of the “Code of Conduct in the South China Sea” (COC). In addition, the US military is bound to strengthen its activities and expand its presence in the South China Sea and surrounding areas as usual and continue to regularly take the so-called FONOPs to interfere with the interpretation and application of international law.

這一政策在美軍方聲明中可見一斑:美方把自己粉飾成國際法“維護者”,不僅污蔑中國對南海航行和飛越自由“構成威脅”。美聲明還違反一個中國原則,故意將臺灣與越南并列視為主權國家。顯而易見,美方一面要求別國遵守國際法,另一面卻習慣性地把自己視作國際法約束的例外者,在海洋法方面更是長期如此。

This policy can be evidenced by the US military statement,in which the US has assigned itself the role of the “defender” of international law, and slandered China as a “threat” to the freedoms of navigation in and overflight over the South China Sea. Besides, the US statement has also violated the one-China principle by deliberately placing Taiwan region and Vietnam side by side as sovereign states.

Obviously, on the one hand, the US requires other countries to abide by international law. Still, on the other hand, it habitually regards itself as an exception to the constraints of international law, especially in the law of the sea.

一個眾所周知的事實是,美國是當前國際社會中極少數尚未加入《聯合國海洋法公約》的國家,但卻動輒揮舞《公約》“大棒”對他國海洋政策與地區海洋事務指手畫腳。美方所謂“航行自由”,與《公約》中的公海航行自由沒有任何關系。

It is a well-known fact that the US is one of the very few countries in the current international community that has not yet joined the “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea”(UNCLOS). However, it frequently wields the big stick of the convention to criticize other countries’ maritime policies and regional maritime affairs. The so-called FONOP proposed by the US has nothing to do with the freedom of navigation on the high seas as depicted in the convention.

美國假借公海航行自由橫行他國管轄海域,意圖在于影響或顛覆國際社會業已達成的對《公約》相關條款解釋的共識。1979年,卡特政府開始推行“航行自由計劃”,以表明不接受這些國家的海洋權利主張。根據美國國防部自1991年至2018年發布的報告,28年間美國根據“航行自由計劃”執行的“航行自由”行動挑戰了61個國家和地區的654項所謂“過度”海洋權利主張。

Under the guise of freedom of navigation on the high seas (that is, on the high seas, vessels of all flags enjoy unrestricted freedom of navigation as one of the freedoms of the high seas), the US has run wild across the waters under the jurisdiction of other countries, aiming to influence or subvert the consensus reached by the international community on the interpretation of relevant provisions in the UNCLOS.

In 1979, the Carter administration initiated the Freedom of Navigation Program to show that the US would not accept the maritime claims of the countries involved in the convention. According to reports issued by the US Department of Defense from 1991 to 2018, the US FONOPs under the Freedom of Navigation Program challenged 654 “excessive” maritime claims by 61 countries and regions.

一個拒不接受《公約》約束的國家,30年來處心積慮地通過政治和軍事挑釁行動干涉全球數十個《公約》締約國的海洋權益主張,這是典型的“無法無天”和雙重標準。

The US is a country that relentlessly refuses to acknowledge the UNCLOS constraints but has deliberately resorted to political and military provocative actions to interfere in affairs of maritime rights and interests concerning dozens of the convention signatories around the world over the past 30 years. This is typical of lawlessness and double standard.

美國聲稱接受習慣國際法的約束,卻對習慣法構成要素的國際實踐漠不關心,而是以本國利益為尺度來“篩選”習慣法,選擇性地將對其有利的法律解釋強加于國際社會。

The US side has claimed to accept the constraints of customary international law, but been indifferent to the international practices, constituent elements of the customary international law. Instead, it screened the customary law according to its interests and selectively imposed legal interpretations favorable to the US on the international community.

公海航行自由也是一項習慣法規則。習慣法的確立與演變取決于普遍性的國際實踐,而非一國建立在自身利益基礎上的偏好與行動。大量國際實踐表明,作為習慣法規則的航行自由已越來越多地受到諸如航行安全、反恐、防擴散、海洋環境保護、維護可持續發展、妥為顧及發展中國家利益等新的國際法理念、原則和規則的制約,以符合全人類的長遠利益。

Freedom of navigation on the high seas is also a rule of the customary law. The establishment and evolution of customary law depend on universal international practices rather than a country’s preferences and actions of its interests. Quantities of international practices have evidenced that freedom of navigation as a rule of the customary law has been increasingly restricted by new international law principles and rules such as navigation safety, anti-terrorism, non-proliferation, marine environmental protection, maintenance of sustainable development, and proper consideration of the interests of developing countries, to meet the long-term interests of all humankind.

其中,《公約》第87條第2款被公認為是對傳統公海自由原則的平衡。根據這一條款,20世紀90年代以來的國際實踐,為航行自由設置了越來越多的限制。

Among others, Article 87, Clause2 in the UNCLOS has been universally acknowledged as a balanced measure to the traditional principle of navigation freedom on the high seas. According to this clause, international practices since the 1990s have imposed more and more restrictions on the freedom of navigation.

例如,1992年南非和葡萄牙均拒絕日本裝載放射性物質的船只進入其專屬經濟區;1995年巴西、阿根廷、智利、南非、瑙魯和基里巴斯等國,先后明確禁止英國載有核廢料的貨輪進入上述國家專屬經濟區;2003年,歐盟正式立法禁止載有重油的油輪進入或??咳魏纬蓡T國港口。

For example, both South Africa and Portugal prohibited Japanese vessels carrying radioactive materials from entering their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) in 1992; Brazil, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, Nauru and Kiribati explicitly prohibited British vessels carrying nuclear waste from entering the aforementioned EEZs in 1995; the European Union (EU) formally banned oil tankers carrying heavy oil from sailing into or calling at any member country’s ports in 2003.

另外,國際海事組織近年來也加強國際立法,不斷提高用于國際航行船舶的準入標準。南海是半閉海,生態環境脆弱,沿岸國人口眾多。美方反復以危險方式在南海開展“航行自由”,不僅威脅沿岸國的國防安全和國家安寧、對南海海洋環境造成損害,更為嚴重的是破壞了地區國家正致力于建設的和平穩定的南海秩序。美海軍片面解讀航行自由,漠視其應承擔的法律義務和國際社會對海洋安全的共同期盼,幾乎成了現代版的“海盜”。

In addition, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has also redoubled its efforts in international legislation in recent years to continuously improve standards for the access of ships engaged on international voyages. The South China Sea is a semi-closed sea with a fragile ecological environment and a large population of coastal countries.

The repeated FONOPs by the US side in the South China Sea in a dangerous manner are sure to threaten the national defense security and national tranquility of coastal countries and damage the marine environment therein, as well as to destroy a peaceful and stable order in the South China Sea that regional countries are working to build. The US Navy seems like a modern pirate by interpreting the freedom of navigation unilaterally and ignoring its legal obligations and the shared expectations of the international community for maritime security.

如果美方繼續毫無顧忌地動輒置國際法于不顧,不僅無益于以建設性方式妥善管控分歧、推動中美關系健康穩定發展,最終付出代價的更是國際社會的共同利益與人類共同福祉。

The unscrupulous disregard of international law by the US will be harmful to properly manage differences in a constructive manner and promote the healthy and stable development of China-US relations. What’s worse, this will ultimately damage the common interests of the international community and the common well-being of humankind.

(作者是中國南海研究院學者)

(The author is a scholar with National Institute for South China Sea Studies.)

輕觸這里,加載下一頁
湖南福彩网